Climate Instabilities Need a Medical Mindset

Gunshots on stage will not cause the audience to take cover and call 911. Substituting the medical mindset for the drama mindset can help us turn on the house lights so we can start backing out of the climate crisis.We are currently coping with a pandemic that shows the cost of ignoring repeated scientific warnings.

And failing to stockpile medical supplies. And failing to rehearse for disasters that could overwhelm medical facilities. And failing to plan for the emergency economy that is needed when sheltering in place for months.

By late February, Denmark, South Korea, and Italy were already aggressively responding to the virus. The following two weeks of U.S.

presidential indecision is now estimated via math models to have caused 54,000 extra deaths.Countries that acted early were often able to use contact tracing to slow the spread instead of the stay-at-home form of social distancing, so another U. S.

failure is in not maintaining a trained reserve of public health interviewers say, cross-trained fire-fighters making the phone calls (with a caller ID not likely to be ignored) and otherwise knocking on the doors (wearing a familiar uniform, making it safer to open the door to someone wearing a mask).With contact tracing, only a few people have to stay home, and only for two weeks, not nearly everyone for ten weeks and counting.And so the two-month White House denial of scientific advice is why we are taking an enormous hit on the economy.

Stay-at-home caused most of the small business failures; those who lost their personal savings have to start all over again because so many of their elected leaders ignored history, other countries examples, and well-founded scientific advice.When a driver is inattentive or slow to react, an expensive swerve perhaps even going off the road is what happens.What makes it much worse is a driver who has a reflexive impulse to defy all experts and to glorify know-nothingism, in Jennifer Rubins phrase.

But he comes atop our more general problems with thinking ahead. For example, why is the 1918 influenza pandemic not taught in U.S.

schools? As Gina Kolata noted in the introduction to her 1999 book, Flu, that pandemic is even missing from major college texts for 20th-century history courses even though the 19181919 pandemic killed more people than all of the 20th-century wars combined, and in just two years. In the 2020 pandemic, public officials often had no idea what mistakes had been made before.

They had no memories to consult about what happened in 1918 when officials in Philadelphia allowed a parade to go forward (three days later, all Philadelphia hospitals were overflowing). How do we avoid repeating an error if it vanishes from the history we teach?Because we are so vulnerable now, we need to plan quickly because a second shoe might fall.

Before we recover from this pandemics economic hit, we could get a second hit if not from a second wave of pandemic, then from a mega heat wave like Europes in 2003 or Russias in 2010. North America is just as vulnerable.Ten years after it was established that big heatwaves had become a hundred times more deadly and were repeating, we hear nothing about preparing for a mega in the U.

S.The 2020 vision from this years pandemic failures serves as a warning for the greatest threat that Homo sapiens has ever faced, the climate crisis. As we organize to avoid the economic hits and mortality of back-to-back extreme weather events, we will need to keep our 2020 failures front-and-center.

Mindset MisfitDo the pandemic failures offer lessons for dealing with the much greater threat from climate instabilities? One comes from mindset.A mindset is the characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will frame new stuff.

It is a complex mental state involving framing, beliefs, feelings, values, and dispositions to take action.For example, as the lights dim for a performance, your mindset shifts. Should gunshots be fired on stage, you dont bother to take cover and phone 911.

You dont comment that the dead actor is still breathing, that the too-red blood looks more like ketchup, or that the trees on stage are obviously two-dimensional fakes.This particular mindset, known in philosophy as the willing suspension of disbelief, features an intentional avoidance of critical thinking. Aristotle first noted this 2,350 years ago regarding ancient Greek theater.

It is now part of a good liberal arts education.Aristotle helps to explain why we are currently stuck like a deer in the headlights, acting as if the climate emergency were only a play. If only turning on the house lights would pop us free to deal with the climate.

One can hope that the present pandemic might serve to reset the drama mindset of our leaders.That inappropriate mindset is the overarching reason for all of those pandemic failures, not the spectacular failings of one particular leader. Rather than further describing our present mindset, heres a mindset which we might adapt to frame our climate crisis.

The Physicians Restore-and-Prevent MindsetMost of the public discussion of climate seems to lack the restore-and-prevent mindset taught in the health sciences.For climate, we are still talking about how to prevent climate trouble at a time when climate repairs are now the larger concern. Talking only about root causes or zero annual emissions, important as they are for the long run, now isnt enough.

Talking prevention now makes about as much sense as treating a dental abscess merely with advice to avoid sugary drinks and candy. For climate, we now have knock-on secondary problems to treat; untreated, extreme weather is a fast track to economic collapse followed by a very messy human population crash.While we cannot yet clean up the blackened lungs of a chronic smoker to head off cancer, with a dedicated effort we could clean up the 50% excess of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air above us.

It is what causes global overheating and ocean acidification.In medicine, the dialysis machines invented to treat chronic kidney failure can also be used to clean up aspirin overdoses from the circulating blood, backing out of what would be a fatal finale.The development of analogous cleanup techniques for carbon dioxide has been delayed so long that, thanks to extreme weather, cleanup must now be big, quick, and sure to work on the first try.

The medical community is also used to dealing with fuzzy categories and their closing windows of opportunity for effective action. That can provide a better intellectual toolkit for facing up to the climate crisis, especially by borrowing what medical school professors teach med students about dealing with emergencies.The Climate EmergencyDealing with emergent situations requires a different mindset than most endeavors, and it is mostly missing in discussions about climate action.

In 1998, when I was asked to write the first major-magazine article on climate instability, a cover story for The Atlantic titled The great climate flip-flop, I got invitations to speak to climate science audiences at various universities. I noticed that they didnt frame their concerns in the way that a medical school audience would have. Neither, I suspect, would an audience of physicists or biologists have tuned in to the need for quick action.

It was the medical mindset that was special.It is not part of the graduate education of basic scientists. Also missing are the difficult big picture discussions with the patient, when all the lab tests have come back and there are difficult choices to be made.

The education of physicians is informed by the 2,500-year track record since Hippocrates. There is nothing like that best-practices history in the case of climate science because it is such a new subject in academia, though growing out of the physics-heavy aspects of oceanography, atmospheric sciences, and geophysics.Slow and Fast Climate DiseaseClimate scientists now know a great deal about slow, steady processes that can create climate change as in those warnings about global warming but they are only beginning to understand climate dynamics and why some anthropogenic climate changes can happen suddenly, as in the five types of extreme weather that worsened four-fold or more in the first decade of the 21st century.

This surge-and-stick in extreme weather means there are now greater concerns than conveyed by conversations about when the averaged global overheating ramp hits 1.5C or 2.0C.

That first decade is when climate change found a fast track, accelerating downhill toward disaster and here we are, still calculating when the slow train might get there.Some nonscientists still deny that there is any train to worry about. Does that remind you of die-hard smokers?

And their fate? And the damage they unintentionally did to nonsmokers along the way? Or remind you of the deeply unethical disinformation campaign that tried to counter the medical message about severe risks from smoke?

The climate disinformation campaign, like the one for tobacco, was copied from the earlier disinformation campaign about what medical scientists were saying about occupational exposure to asbestos.The third disinformation campaign attempted to spread confusion about the climate warnings. Like the earlier ones for asbestos and tobacco, the industry tried to smear the scientists and harass them into keeping their heads down.

In each case, these unethical tactics delivered decades of additional profits to the offending industry without legislators catching on to their tactic of blowing smoke.When Climate FlipsTo understand why climate action has become so urgent, focus your mind for a moment on the traditional bathroom light switch, where a gradual increase in finger pressure suddenly triggers a flip and a click, flooding the space with painfully bright light. Climate can flip as well.

We often assume that the overheating is like pushing a dimmer switch, where results are linearly proportional to the push. But for five types of extreme weather, something flipped in that first decade. It became what ecologists call a regime shift.

A change of state can even make statistics of past weather worthless. In particular, the first decades abrupt climate shift has served to accelerate the time scale for the climate repairs needed to avoid that human population crash.Think Fast.

And then Think AgainIts a motto for the emergency medicine physicians. Get moving, but keep revisiting the patients diagnosis, in case something additional creeps in say, internal bleeding or shock. Thats the mindset now needed to cope with our climate injuries.

Merely reducing annual emissions will not cut it in time. Despite occasional near-success stories, such as the way that California and the EU have held emissions per person constant since 1980, the annual world-wide bump up in carbon dioxide has increased about 50 percent since the turn of the 21st century. However successful the emphasis on emissions reduction has been for educating about the long-term picture, that accelerating rise in CO2 says we have not done enough to reverse the trend, let alone stop it, or reverse it fast enough to cool us off before extreme weather destroys key features of civilization.

Our goals have been far too simple; they only give the appearance of taking effective action.And in the future?Omitted from most discussions is this scenario: About a third of annual emissions now come from the developing countries, soon to need overnight air conditioning to survive heatwaves.

They will burn their local fossil fuels to generate electricity to run the extra A/C units, whatever treaties say; they will replace any government that fails to provide enough electricity to protect their children and allow them to sleep.Because of air mixing, the CO2 produced by developing tropical countries doesnt stick around. Neither did ours stay local, which is why they are in trouble.

The U. S. , with only 5% of the worlds population, managed to create the largest national share of the present CO2 accumulation pie (28%).

Others are saying You broke it. You own it. Instead, the U.

S. ran away from the commitments made at the 2015 Paris Agreement on future emissions.A warmer world causes more forest fires, adding to annual emissions, which triggers even more forest fires that raise CO2 further.

Warmer soils speed up decomposition, one reason that we get hotter even after we reach zero emissions from energy sources.The continued framing of climate action as only an emissions reduction task (similar to a heavy smoker cutting back to one pack a day), one with little discussion of backing out of the danger zone for extreme weather, will take us straight into too little, too late and the massive social consequences of hopelessness (as I discuss in Extreme Weather and What to Do About It).Prevention vs.

TreatmentPrevention and treatment often demand different approaches, but that is seldom acknowledged by the major reports about our climate problem. Many people reason, in effect, Emissions caused the problem. Reducing them ought to fix it.

However true for smog reduction in the 1970s and the ozone-destroying refrigerator gases in the 1990s, CO2 is not cleaned up by nature as fast as visible air pollution is (a thousand years to clean up 80%, vs. two weeks). That is rarely mentioned by anyone outside the climate science community.

While emissions reduction was the obvious strategy for CO2 fifty years ago, it is a prevention measure (like reducing smoking), not a fix once a disease (like lung cancer) develops. The time scale for effective counter-measures has changed because of those extreme weather shifts, but our strategy has not. Current extreme weather could crash the economy and leave us too battered to get our act together for effective action, especially if coming on the heels of another crash.

This alone demands a change in strategy. We now need stronger climate medicine in the form of a CO2 cleanup. The IPCC has begun to state this, as of 2018, but membership climate organizations have been slow to talk about it, as have elected officials.

They typically focus on rallying the troops to use less, a theme of the past fifty years; though providing a needed education, it has proved inadequate to the present task. The window of opportunity for backing out of extreme weathers danger zone may be as short as the next ten to twenty years. Even for a CO2 scrubbing project that finishes by 2040, it will take at least eight years to get started cooling, and we do not know how fast extreme weather will decline as the CO2 comes down.

This makes an immediate start even more urgent. It might take four years to get the U. S.

Congress up to speed. Thats four years that we dont have, not anymore. Replacing reluctant legislators is now too slow; we must help the present ones to open their minds instead.

Yet we also need to get moving on climate repairs this year. In the U. S.

, we worry it will take another decade to get our government started on a big climate repair project. That, I suspect, has a 50% chance of being too little, too late. It will lead to widespread despair.

What to do?Reducing annual emissions is what, in medical circles, is known as buying time, rather the way a rural physician might use a diuretic such as mannitol to reduce brain swelling, while airlifting the head-injury patient to a neurosurgeon. However, I remember well what the neurosurgeons had to say in our departmental coffee room about some doctors who waited for the mannitol to work in a head injury victim; only when it didnt work did they call for an air ambulance.

Those lost hours meant much more brain damage, and so many such patients died. Summon and then buy time that was what the neurosurgeons counseled the medical students. Dont confuse effective treatment with merely buying time.

Think ahead.Emissions reduction efforts are all about buying time, not effective treatment. Producing extra clouds or high haze to reflect sunlight may cool on average, but they dont work on the night side of the earth; there will be atmospheric turbulence at sunrise and sunset.

Nor are they of long-term value for ocean acidification and overheating in the manner of taking excess CO2 out of circulation.Gradual overheating is no longer the correct focus for understanding the risk we now face, as we have entered the territory where faster tracks to disaster must be forestalled via backing-up tactics.There is a possible workaround to the slow road ahead for climate action, one that would provide hope as well: a Manhattan Project 2.

0 to design and prototype a CO2 cleanup to begin in four years. But such a big coordinated effort likely will not happen in time without a strong expression of what we expect from our government.What Congress now needs to hear from emergency management pros (such as the 17 million U.

S. physicians) is why our climate crisis now qualifies as a climate emergency. It requires a different mindset, conveyed when we all lobby elected officials about the urgent need to move quickly.

William H. Calvin, Ph.D.

, is a professor emeritus at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle and is now the president of the CO2Foundation. org. His seventeenth book, Extreme Weather and What to Do About It, features a critique of the current climate message; describes five extreme weather shifts that occurred a decade ago; gives a justification for what makes climate an emergency now; considers design criteria for how to take the 50% excess of CO2 out of circulation; and offers a proposal for how to get started with a Manhattan Project 2.

RELATED QUESTION What times does Tribute in Light display outside of September 11, 2012? Located at West and Morris Streets in Lower Manhattan, the tribute of lights will begin at sunset of 9/11 (7:11pm) and fade away at dawn on September 12th (6:43am), though no formal service will be held. The Tribute is comprised of 44 7,000-watt xenon light bulbs arranged into two 48-foot squares inspired by shape and orientation of the twin towers.

The Memorial illuminates up to 4 miles in the sky and can be seen from up to 30 miles away.

sin datos
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1. Answering this question will help me stop been paranoid about having an STD so may answers would be good plz?Chlamydia is a bacterial infection of your genital tract. Chlamydia may be difficult for you to detect because early-stage infections often cause few or no signs and symptoms. When they do occur, they usually start one to three weeks after you've been exposed to chlamydia. Even when signs and symptoms do occur, they're often mild and passing, making them easy to overlook. Signs and symptoms may include: Painful urination Lower abdominal pain Vaginal discharge in women Discharge from the penis in men Pain during sexual intercourse in women Testicular pain in men Gonorrhea symptoms Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection of your genital tract. The first gonorrhea symptoms generally appear within two to 10 days after exposure. However, some people may be infected for months before signs or symptoms occur. Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea may include: Thick, cloudy or bloody discharge from the penis or vagina Pain or burning sensation when urinating Frequent urination Pain during sexual intercourse Trichomoniasis symptoms Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by a microscopic, one-celled parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. This organism spreads during sexual intercourse with someone who already has the infection. The organism usually infects the urinary tract in men, but often causes no symptoms in men. Trichomoniasis typically infects the vagina in women and may cause these signs and symptoms: Greenish yellow, possibly frothy vaginal discharge Strong vaginal odor Vaginal itching or irritation Pain during sexual intercourse Painful urination Light vaginal bleeding HIV symptoms HIV is an infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV interferes with your body's ability to effectively fight off viruses, bacteria and fungi that cause disease, and it can lead to AIDS, a chronic, life-threatening disease. When first infected with HIV, you may have no symptoms at all. Some people develop a flu-like illness, usually two to six weeks after being infected. Early HIV signs and symptoms may include: Fever Headache Sore throat Swollen lymph glands Rash Fatigue These early signs and symptoms usually disappear within a week to a month and are often mistaken for those of another viral infection. During this period, you are very infectious. More persistent or severe symptoms of HIV infection may not appear for 10 years or more after the initial infection. As the virus continues to multiply and destroy immune cells, you may develop mild infections or chronic signs and symptoms such as: Swollen lymph nodes often one of the first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Fever Cough and shortness of breath Stop all this doctor trips you are fine but this did put the fear of God within you so next time you will be prepared for any thing....------2. What is proffesional led stage lighting?When you're putting on an occasion, whether it is an unassuming school play or a party, stage lighting rental is an unquestionable requirement. Lighting is a main thrust of your production, giving brightening, center, detail and modifying the view of the group of audience. There is nothing that so vitally passes on an inclination superior to a decent lighting system, and with boundless inventive potential, will serve as an immense advantage for your creation. Focus, position and hanging:Conventional stage lighting must be set up because of these three contemplations. Focus refers to where the light will point; position alludes to where the light will start from; hanging refers to the real demonstration of hanging the light. Shading, force and example (assuming any) should be considered next. Types of stage lighting :Ellipsoidal - these lights are the conventional stage lights and thought to be the most critical. They are centering lights, the appearance in front of an audience of which can be adjusted by screens and channels.Fresnel - these lights are utilized for shading washes on the stage. Standard Jars - these lights are the sort you will see in even the dingiest of bars. Continuously a strong choice, standard jars can get hammered, are sturdy and simple to transport.Follow spots - these are spotlights used to pursue somebody around a phase. Obviously, there are increasingly choices accessible for stage lighting with the consistent progress of innovation. Presently you have the fundamentals; here are a couple of more alternatives:LEDs - these Professional LED Stage Lighting are useful for centered pillars and have been gradually supplanting conventional globules in stage lighting.Dizzies - these lights are round circles with a few Drove lights (more often than not of varying hues) covering the surface. The circle pivots in an assortment of bearings and examples, making a whirling, confounding example, consequently the name.Gels - this term alludes to the hues given to lights. They function as shading channels, and should work in congruity with the shade of the light itself to accomplish the craved impact. Once you have got your types of lighting down, you'll have to consider where to place them. Here's an essential summary of lighting positions:Front - This is utilized for the most part for perceivability and shading impacts. Side - can be utilized to awesome impact to complement activity. Back - Additionally utilized for impact. This kind of lighting can make the dream of profundity on a phase, or notwithstanding to silhouette a man totally.What is proffesional led stage lighting?------3. I have been bleeding all weekend but positive preg test. whats wrong?Spotting or light vaginal bleeding at the start of your pregnancy is a common occurrence and can even disguise the fact that you are indeed pregnant. Women have even confused this light bleeding for their period. My obstetrician told me that one in three women report having some amount of light bleeding during the first month or two of pregnancy. Most of these occurrences do not result in loss of pregnancy. I experienced spotting in two of my pregnancies before the eighth week of pregnancy and both of those pregnancies resulted in healthy girls. If you experience spotting or vaginal bleeding early on in your pregnancy you may hear the medical staff refers to it as threatened abortion, which can be scary to hear. When light bleeding leads to loss of pregnancy many terms are used to describe this loss that you may hear your health care staff speak about including those associated with spontaneous miscarriages such as threatened abortion, inevitable, incomplete, complete, or missed abortion. If you are spotting or experiencing light bleeding but have not passed any tissue or experienced any cramping, what you may have is a threatened abortion. This may mean that you are in the beginning stage of having a miscarriage or you may be experiencing things associated with a normal pregnancy that may be causing the bleeding. Light bleeding can progress into heavier bleeding quickly or over the course of a few days. Fortunately for me an ultrasound revealed that what was thought of as a threated abortion was an intact pregnancy with a strong heartbeat. Having personally experienced light bleeding in two pregnancies I can attest to the fact that the first thing a woman things of when she sees the blood is, "I'm losing my baby!" If the bleeding is brown in color it is most likely old blood. If the blood is bright red than it is fresh bleeding and more cause for concern than if it had been old blood. I was told that the color of blood is significant by one of the medical staff caring for me during my last pregnancy and she told me the meaning of the color of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. If you also have cramping that feels like your period it is more likely that you are having a miscarriage and need medical attention, another tip I was told by this staff member. Do not panic if you are experiencing cramping though because some women have reported light cramping at the time of implantation and have continued with a healthy pregnancy. Fortunately I was not cramping in this pregnancy but had been cramping in a previous one that had led to my daughter being born at 23 weeks gestation. She survived and is a healthy teenager today.------4. Can Photosynthesis Be Carried Out Using The Light From A Torch?Look into: fluorescence induction studies Here are some resources for you: Grow light From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Plant light) Jump to: navigation, search Dual spectrum compact fluorescent grow light. Actual length is about 40cm.Grow lights are electric lamps designed to promote plant growth by emitting an electromagnetic spectrum appropriate for photosynthesis. It does this by mimicking the light spectrum from the sun, allowing indoor growth with outdoor conditions. Different light spectrums are used for the different stages of plant growth. The initial vegetative stage requires blue spectrum of light, whereas the later 'flowering' stage should be done with red/orange spectrums. The lights can be bought by spectrum colour specifically, or some companies such as Sylvania Grolux produce a full spectrum bulb which caters for all stages of growth. The light is usually used in conjunction with a reflector, to control and intensify the light emissions, and will include an electrical ballast to control the flow of current flowing to the light. This is required because of the high intensity of the light that is necessary to produce something akin to sunlight. But because of this intensity hydroponics can lead to double or more growth rate than regular growing. Lamp types used as grow lights include high-intensity discharge lamps and fluorescent lamps. Grow lights are most used for indoor gardening, including indoor hydroponics and aquatic plants. Artificial photosynthesis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Artificial photosynthesis is a research field that attempts to replicate the natural process of photosynthesis, converting sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. Sometimes splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen by using sunlight energy is also referred to as artificial photosynthesis. Research is being done into a streamlined form of photosynthesis which breaks water into oxygen and hydrogen . This process is the first stage of plant photosynthesis (the Light-dependent reaction). Carbon dioxide is not required in this approach. The hydrogen released in artificial photosynthesis (stage 1) could be used in hydrogen engines to generate "clean" energy. The light-independent reaction (aka the Calvin-Benson cycle) is the second stage of plant photosynthesis, which converts carbon dioxide into glucose. Glucose is stored energy for a plants' growth and repair. It has been suggested that such a process replicated on an industrial scale could help to counter global warming. Specifically, the light-independent reaction of photosynthesis could be used to "mop up" excessive amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Again, however, such a process would ultimately require a source of energy, just as plant photosynthesis does. A flashlight or torch is a hand-held portable electric spotlight.
Marilyn Manson Crushed by Falling Prop on New York Stage
Marilyn Manson has been rushed to hospital from a concert in New York after a huge prop made from two giant guns fell forwards onto him.Manson was about an hour into his set in the city's Hammerstein Ballroom yesterday when the prop - which appeared to be two giant guns joined by metal scaffolding - flipped forward. He can be seen in video posted from the event grappling with the prop for an instant, before it fell fully on him.#NileFM | #BreakingNews@marilynmanson crushed by falling stage gun props at concert, taken to hospitalWatch crowd-shot video below:— 104.2 Nile FM (@NileFM) October 1, 2017An eyewitness told the BBC that the singer laid on stage for up to 15 minutes covered by a sheet before he was carried out on a stretcher and taken to hospital.His condition is not currently known.Eyewitness Anthony Biscardi said: "He was performing the [Eurythmics] song Sweet Dreams. Towards the middle of the song it seemed as though he tried climbing onto a prop. The first touch of weight on those poles and it came crashing down onto him."Clips from the scene show tour staff instantly lifting the prop off Manson, but he does not get back up."He was pretty limp, almost as though he was unconscious," Mr Biscardi said.Mr Biscardi said a black sheet was put around Manson until he could be taken off stage. The house and stage lights went off for several minutes and came back on with an announcer saying the show was over "due to injury".A representative told Rolling Stone magazine that: "Manson suffered an injury towards the end of his incredible NYC show. He is being treated at a local hospital."Manson, 48, was three dates into his The Heaven Upside Down Tour. He was due to perform in Boston on Monday night.
The Time Travel Machine: Ashok Leyland's Auto Expo
At his office, vintage car restorer C S Ananth has literature pertaining to Austin A40 Devon within easy reach. For, until August 30, he was working on a 1948 model of the car, for his client, Ashok Leyland. The company had commissioned the restoration, seeking to make the car the frontispiece of a visual story tracing 70 years of organisational history.At an expo conducted over the last weekend, Ashok Leyland's history was parked in rooms, each roughly representing a decade. Visitors walking into the first room were greeted by a 1948-manufactured Royal Blue Austin A40 Devon, doused in soft stage lights. The car took visitors to the genesis of the company in 1948, when it was known as Ashok Motors. A timeline at throws light on the genesis:"Founded by Raghunandan Saran, Ashok Motors was set up in collaboration with Austin Motor Company, England and incorporated on September 7 (1948) for the Assembly of Austin cars."In 1949, at the company's factory in Ennore, near Madras, the Austin A40 began to be 'indigenously assembled'. Distribution of assembled Austin A40s in India continued till 1953. The Austin Motor Company was making Austin A40 Devon from 1947 to 1952, when it was replaced by the Austin A40 Somerset.Only assembled four-door Austin A40s were distributed. Along with the four-door Austin A40 Devon, the Austin Motor Company had introduced a two-door model called Austin A40 Dorset, which didn't make it to the Indian market. In the India of that period and the decades following it, two-doors did not make an impression on most buyers of passenger cars."In the West, two-door cars were in vogue. With a two-door car, buyers there were reassured about the safety of children sitting in the rear. In India, two-doors were seen as an inconvenience to elders: They would find it difficult to enter such a car," says Ananth.Moreover, the Austin A40s assembled and distributed by Ashok Motors (the company would be renamed Ashok Leyland only in 1955, when Leyland Motors Ltd became its equity partner) were bought and pressed into taxi service in the metros.In the last room, where the latest developments at the company were being showcased, a 1953 Austin A40 Somerset was parked. The car had been made electric and it drove home the company's move to work on new platforms, which include making electric vehicles. As part of the 70-year celebrations, it has inaugurated an electric vehicles manufacturing facility at Ennore.
Under the Stars and Quilts, with Randalls Island As Her Stage
It's a sleepover to beat all sleepovers. Food, stories, discussions, dances and, after an opening ceremony and a two-mile walk, settling down for the night on a 4,000-square-foot bed of quilts.For her newest performance project, "Then a Cunning Voice and a Night We Spend Gazing at Stars," the dance artist Emily Johnson will play host to 300 strangers in Randalls Island Park. This all-night event on Saturday, Aug. 19, which is presented by Performance Space 122, is no endurance test. Participants will be on the island long enough to watch the sun set and rise again. Ms. Johnson, who specializes in multidisciplinary work, is trying to spark some change and some healing in the world. "It takes us taking a step together to do that," she said. "I love bringing people together."And she's good at it. For Ms. Johnson, a soft-spoken Alaskan of Yup'ik ancestry, action taken, no matter how small, adds up. "Gather our awareness, gather our senses," she continued. "Gather our ability to care for one another, to rest together and to move toward a guided action."She can't predict what that action will be in the end, but Ms. Johnson does feel adamant that it's time for a shift. "Across the world, there are these disruptions and ripples — deep, deep anguish and deep, deep bursts of action, all of which is necessary," she said. "But how can we focus? We come together. And that is like ceremony. You don't know what the end of ceremony is, you just know that you're stepping into a process."Ms. Johnson, who lives on the Lower East Side after 21 years spent in Minneapolis, has been working toward such an event. Her recent project "Shore" extended beyond the proscenium stage to include, in a 2015 New York iteration, a performance that began outside and moved indoors, a section directed by Ain Gordon; volunteerism in the Rockaways and on Governors Island; and a potluck feast.This time, Mr. Gordon is directing the entire event; early on, he convinced Ms. Johnson to contain "Then a Cunning Voice" to a single site."She was talking about this idea of stargazing and about turning off electric light, so I sort of said, 'So we're going to do all that and then march everybody off to a theater and turn on stage lights?" he said. "That doesn't sound theatrical to me. So we began to talk about how it could all happen in one place."Mr. Gordon, a three-time Obie winner, enjoys the collaborative process because it refreshes his own. It helps that he and Ms. Johnson have different artistic impulses. "She tends to wish for things to ebb and flow," he said, "and I tend to be more decisive about 'here is the beginning and here is the end.'"In the millions of conversations we've had, I don't remember Emily saying, 'Will this be big enough for the size of the stage?' And I say that all the time."After hearing his comment, Ms. Johnson laughed for a good 10 seconds. "Good," she said.Ms. Johnson is just as fond of her other collaborators, who include the dancers Tania Isaac and Georgia Lucas, a 12-year-old from Newark who performed in "Shore," as well as the textile artist Maggie Thompson, who designed the quilts. They were created in multiple cities by volunteers at community sewing bees around the United States and in Taiwan and Australia. Inscriptions are sewn into the quilts, answering questions like, "What do you want for your well-being?" One answer reads: "A changed relationship to time."Jen Rae, a founder of the Australia-based Fair Share Fare, a collaborative art project that focuses on the future of food amid the looming disruptions of climate change, is planning the menu. In Melbourne, where "Shore" was also performed, Ms. Rae focused on indigenous food.In her work, subtly or otherwise, there is always a recognition of the notion of indigenous people and their land. Randalls Island, as Ms. Johnson pointed out, is in the Lenapehoking homeland — the lands inhabited by Native Americans known as the Lenape. For "Then a Cunning Voice," Ms. Rae is researching the history of Randalls Island, including its soil and the language and traditions of the Lenape people. It's not catering, but rather, it's food as art.Ms. Johnson knows that 12 hours is a long time to spend with strangers. She hopes that the initial walk to the performance site will be a way, she said, "to shed what we need to shed from the day.""I'm really relying on people to be ready to shift," she said. "That's going to be really necessary for this night to feel good. And that relates to what this whole night is about, which is about shifting so that we can shift the world."The audience, in other words, must be a willing participant and is very much a part of the piece itself. (An etiquette guide for the performance comes with purchase of a ticket.)"We are together and responsible for this thing," she said. "I think that that's good practice about being a responsible citizen. Why can't we enact this kind of responsibility in our lives?"Both she and Mr. Gordon are sure about one thing: the setting. "On Randalls Island, you can hear and feel the city, but you're also separate from it a little bit," Ms. Johnson said. "It's situated across from Rikers Island. I was like, all right, this is energy that wants to be exchanged and cleared and acknowledged — this feels like the right place to do this work."Mr. Gordon describes Randalls Island as being very old New York, which he likes. "All the beautification of New York — none of that has happened in how you get to Randalls Island," he said. "It's the old version of how you get somewhere. You really have to take the train to 125th Street and then you have to look for the bus stop, and it's a regular old bus, and then you say to the bus driver, 'Which stop do I get off for the Sunken Meadow?' And he says, 'I don't know.'"Laughing with delight, Mr. Gordon said: "It is kind of a secret little spot. That's how it feels to me."
Rock 'n' Roll Shabbat: the Spiritual Experience of Turning ...
It was 1984 when Dee Snider first asked me what I wanted to do with my life. The answer was, and still is, "I want to ROCK!" As the once dubbed "heavy metal rabbi," I've been exploring the question of whether rock 'n' roll music can support a deep spiritual/Shabbat experience. Given a rather conventional and full life as a congregational rabbi with two amazing children and a partner who is an OB/GYN resident, the truth is I don't really get to rock on a daily basis -- even though I need it man, oh how I need it! Sure, I infuse my daily routine with rock when I can. Lately, I listen to Anthrax's Worship Music on my commute to work, and I write sermons while listening to Perry Farrell and Jane's Addiction. Rock lyrics find their way into my teaching and preaching, but nonetheless, my relationship to rock is not what it once was. It's not the same as being in the mosh pit. It's not the same as being pressed up against the barricade in front of the stage. It's not the same as watching the house lights grow dim, waiting for the band to emerge and feeling the collective roar as the stage lights go up and the first notes wail. In the crowd you become part of an enormous community, when your voice merges with thousands of others, your individualism and ego are dimmed. For a brief moment, you can lose yourself to a collective consciousness and experience being part of something much greater. Today, almost everyone tells me they are "spiritual but not religious." Over the years I have been paying close attention to the experiences people have and cultivate that they consider to be "spiritual." Spirituality is so often characterized and caricaturized as meditation, yoga, chanting or sitting in a circle contemplating unity, oneness and the truth of our interconnectedness. In other words, for many of us, cultivating spiritual experiences is about trying to turn down the volume and pace of our daily lives. In the Jewish tradition, the spirituality of Shabbat often receives the same reductive, overly monochromatic treatment. It is not a new or radical statement to suggest that the concept of Shabbat -- and the experience of Shabbat -- is one of the greatest gifts the Jewish tradition offers its followers. The observance of Shabbat is said by many to be the "first labor law" in the history of humanity. We are commanded to "take a break" every week, to not permit our lives to be solely about work and the mundane. Shabbat, we are taught, should be an oneg, a joy and a delight. Indeed we engage in the unique joy and pleasure of being in the company of family and friends sharing meals and thoughts about deeper matters, and about Truth. This core Jewish tradition and observance is a profound teaching in and of itself. Somehow, the current normative American idea that spirituality is about slowing everything down has become prevalent throughout the organized liberal Jewish world as well. In one synagogue after another, and in one Jewish community after another, the prevailing wisdom and practice is that the "spirituality of Shabbat" is to be experienced by slowing everything down, by becoming more quiet and still. To be clear, this is not a bad thing at all. Shabbat prayer services including moments of silence, chanting and Shabbat meditation retreats for example, can be exciting, vibrant and authentic ways of experiencing the gifts of Shabbat. However, they are not the only way. There are different spiritual personalities in our world and for some spiritual types, increasing volume and speed is an equally powerful way to access an authentic Shabbat experience. In fact, while turning the volume down and becoming more still can support our experience of the spirituality of Shabbat, so too, turning the volume up on the Marshall Amp stacks can do the same thing. Rock 'n' roll can generate for me joy, delight, rest and a break from work and the mundane. Since I can't rock out every day, when would I rock, if not on Shabbat?Not only is my spiritual personality occasionally better served on Shabbat with a dose of rock 'n' roll, but it is an authentic Jewish experience to do so. Every Shabbat we symbolically reenact the moment of revelation at Mount Sinai. The biblical account of revelation at Sinai seems to me to be more like a rock concert than a silent meditation. "There was thunder and lightning, a dense fog covered the mountain, there was a loud horn and everyone shook. Mount Sinai was smoking, and trembling violently, the horn grew louder .. .all the people saw the sounds of the thunder and lightning, the blare of the horn and of the mountain smoking" (Exodus 20). One might argue that attending a rock concert, with a laser light show, fog and smoke machines, booms of horns and thunder, pyrotechnics perhaps, and a crowd of thousands all listening for Truth, would be the most accurate way to symbolically recreate revelation. There is also an implicit sensuality that runs through rock 'n' roll, ever since Elvis' hips first gyrated. While some might argue that rock 'n' roll, with its sensuality, passion and intensity is counter to the religious spirit of Shabbat, I would argue that on the contrary, Shabbat is an extremely physical as well as a spiritual time, when we are meant to take delight in sensual experiences of touch, taste and smells. There is a long standing rabbinic tradition, both in mystical Judaism and in the Talmud, that erev Shabbat, the evening of Shabbat, is a particularly auspicious time for sexual relations. Sexual relations on erev Shabbat are viewed in these texts as acts of joy with spiritual and potentially profound mystical ramifications. Sexual activity is viewed in this context as a sacred spiritual act with purpose that goes far beyond a simplistic notion of sex as an act of procreation. So in honoring the part of myself, and of many members of my community that crave the spiritual experience of "rocking out," we have created our first ever "Rock 'n' Roll Shabbat." At this service we moved our way through the matbeah, the traditional structure of a Friday night service by setting some liturgical pieces to rock 'n' roll or more upbeat tunes. We also insert rock songs into certain "thematic" prayers at key moments in the service. The service was, of course, followed by a party. For some, it was the most powerful Shabbat experience they have ever had.
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